Printing refers to the transfer of an image from one surface to another. Printing involves a repeated process which yields multiple good impressions. The number of good impressions depends on the materials and the process used, but this number is artificially limited for commercial purposes. A print is a reproduction of an original work of art. To avoid duplication, artists often create multiple copies. There are many different types of printing. Some are more common than others.
The process begins by making a screen, which is usually a wooden frame that holds the fabric taut. A design is then drawn or painted onto the screen. Parts of the image are blocked from the ink by blocking holes in the fabric. The thick ink is then pulled across the screen by a rubber blade called a squeegee. The ink adheres to the greasy surface and a print is created.
The first printing methods were based on woodcuts, which involved chiseling text into a wood block backwards. Then, the printing pages were printed by pressing them against the block. These techniques were used by printers in Zhejiang, China, who were able to print 130,000 copies of the Tripitaka in nine hundred and one-six AD. Later efforts led to the creation of movable type.
Gutenberg was the first to develop European movable-type printing techniques. He worked with Johann Fust and Peter Schoffer in Mainz to develop a machine that was more efficient and durable than the wine-press. Gutenberg also developed an ink called oil-based, which was more durable than water-based ink. In just a year, he had the first colored print and a book in the form of a vellum leaf.